Deluge of Atlantis

Deluge of Atlantis
Deluge of Atlantis

Sunday, August 21, 2011

Professor Claude Schaeffer and Velikovsky

2200-2000 BC:
4.2 Kiloyear Event

Professor Claude F.A.Schaeffer (1898-1982) of the College de France

Claude Schaeffer was a revolutionary French archaeologist who came to the central conclusion that mankind's destiny was principally forced by natural mega calamities not seen today. This included continent wide , earthquakes mega tsunamis and volcanoes and massive climate change. In his time he was placed in isolation regarding these conclusions. Then as now archaeology principally placed mankind's ascent and descent as the result of warfare, politics and decline in competence. It is only recently that archaeologist such as Harvey Weiss and Amos Ben Nur are questioning these theory laden ideas and realizing that natures catastrophic hand may play a larger part in mankind's destiny

The task of collecting and interpreting the archaeological evidence of these great natural upheavals in the area of the Near East was diligently performed. He excavated Ras Shamra-Ugarit in Syria and Enkomi-Alasia in Cyprus . During the years of World War II and the years following he laboured on his Stratigraphie comparee et chronologie de l’Asie occidentale. He came to the conclusion that great catastrophes of continental dimensions closed several historical ages; the greatest of them took place at the end of the Middle Kingdom in Egypt and actually caused its downfall; the earth was covered with a thick layer of ash, violent earthquakes shook the entire ancient East, from Troy at the Dardanelles to the Caucasus, Persia, Egypt; civilizations of the Middle Bronze Age were suddenly terminated; traffic, commerce, and pursuit of the arts ceased; populations of all countries were decimated; the survivors became vagrants; plagues took their toll; the climate suddenly changed, too.

He wrote to Immanuel Velikovsky in personal correspondence .

"Since the publication of Stratigraphie Comparée in 1948, written during the intervals of my wartime duties in the Fighting French Navy, mainly between 1942 and 1945, further reading and research in several Near-Eastern archaeological sites have disclosed new confirmations of the reality of those crises on a continental scale which I have detected and tried to analyse. I would be glad if I could write now immediately the contemplated second and enlarged edition of Stratigraphie Comparée in 2 volumes. For with the new confirmations those crises could no longer be questioned by the great number of sceptical short-sighted archaeologists among which I live now in some sort of scientific isolation, so striking are the proofs and so accurate the dates established by the new discoveries. When their testimony will have been shown, those great crises will explain better than before, the historical development of the most ancient civilizations and its mechanism, and they will definitely take out of the hands of man the command of the great historical happenings we thought he possessed.

Having for the first time established in Strat. Comp. those successive crises during the IIrd and IInd mill from the Caucasus down to Egypt (and there are even more to be analysed of the IVth and Ist mill. B.C.), I was tempted to look for the causes among which were earthquakes, tidal waves, climatic changes and other natural catastrophic agents. The idea of the earthquake disturbances and their consequences has bitten so much the imagination of the archaeologists that some of them which are hostile to new ideas which oblige them to study afresh established scientific opinions, admitted that I wanted to explain all those different crises by earth tremors and their consequences on human occupation and civilization in ancient times. Thus those of my colleagues which are not easily accessible to new ideas used their argument in order to discredit the whole idea of the reality of crises on continental scale. It disturbed their conservative and comfortable outlook on the historical events during the IIIrd and IInd mill. It will take some more time until the new idea has taken root, but it will ultimately take root for the truth always in the end prevails. Of course, as you did it in your vast field mainly of geology, anthropology, astronomy, I would like to hasten the process of ripening of the new ideas by publishing the new material and the new confirmation in the Near Eastern and European prehistorical and protohistorical archaeology. Unfortunately I am so burdened with work that the time has not yet come when I can sit back and write down the new and enlarged Stratigraphie Comparée.

Perhaps it is good, at present, to establish only the reality of those crises and tremendous upheavals during the last millennia before our time, or B.C. and leave the study of the causes to later research. For the historian and the general public are not yet ready to accept the thought that the earth is a much less safe place than they were accustomed to believe. With the removal of the troublesome warlords in some of the modern nations, with Hitler, Mussolini and the Communists finally removed, they think eternal peace and security will automatically be attained on earth everywhere. It is true that the very recent earthquake disaster in the usual Mediterranean area have again slightly shaken that belief. But men are not easily convinced to face reality and to accept the results of objective research. They prefer to live in their imaginative world. And perhaps all the better for them."

The distance from the Dardanelles, near which the mound of Troy lies, to Ras-Shamra is about six hundred miles on a straight line. In modern annals of seismology no earthquake is known to have affected so wide an area. Schaeffer investigated the excavated places in Asia Minor, and the archaeologists’ reports, and in every place found the same picture. He turned his attention to Persia, farther to the East--and the very same signs of catastrophes were evident in each and every excavated place. Then he turned his attention to the Caucasus—and there, too, the similarity of the causes and effects was undeniable. In his own excavations on Cyprus he could once more establish the very same series of interventions by the frenzied elements of nature. He was so impressed by what he found that during the next few years he put into writing the aforementioned voluminous work, Stratigraphie comparée et chronologie de l’Asie occidentale (IIIe et IIe millennaires), published by Oxford University Press in 1948. In over six hundred pages supplemented by many tables, he presented his thesis.

The great perturbations which left their traces in the stratigraphy of the principal sites of the Bronze Age of Western Asia are six in number. The oldest among them shook, between 2400 and 2300, all of the land extending from the Caucasus in the North down to the Valley of the Nile, where it became one of the causes, if not the principal cause, of the fall of the Egyptian Old Kingdom after the death of Pepi II. In two important sites in Asia Minor, at Troy and Alaca Huyuk, the excavators reported damage due to earthquakes. Under the collapsed walls of the buildings contemporaneous with the catastrophe, the skeletons of the inhabitants surprised by the earthquake were retrieved. However, in the actual state of our knowledge, it is not possible to say to what extent the earthquakes are the direct cause of the disasters which, at a date situated between 2400 and 2300, fell upon so many of the countries of Western Asia.

We are better informed in that which concerns the second of the great perturbations which in the order of time shook all of the Bronze Age civilization in Western Asia. In Anatolia, these brutal and sudden events struck fatally the brilliant centers of Troy III, of Alaca Huyuk famous for the riches of its royal tombs, and Alishar I B and of Tarse.

As to the nature of this third great perturbation, registered in all of the countries of Western Asia at the end of the Middle Bronze Age, and whose effects, in certain regions, were prolonged into the midst of the Recent Bronze period, we are reduced, in the actual state of our knowledge, to hypotheses. In most countries occupancy suffered a notable reduction, in others sedentary occupancy was replaced by nomadic. In Palestine and the island of Cyprus the situation appears to have been complicated by epidemics; collective tombs without durable offerings and apparently established with a certain haste were brought to light in the necropolises of the end of the Middle Bronze Age and the beginning of the Recent Bronze Age. Calamities of the same nature appear to have caused the eclipse of the Hittite empire from 1600 on in round figures. Persia and Mesopotamia in their turn then went through a severe crisis; likewise in the North, the countries of the Caucasus; our study has shown that here too there is no continuity between the civilizations of the Middle Bronze Age and of the Recent Bronze Age.

This brilliant period of the Middle Bronze Age, during which flourished the art of the Middle Kingdom in Egypt and the refined industrial art of the Middle Minoan, and in the course of which the great commercial centers such as Ugarit in Syria enjoyed a remarkable prosperity, was ended between 1750 and 1650 by a new catastrophe, equal in severity and in scope to the two preceding perturbations.

However, around 1450, a new perturbation, the fourth since the middle of the third millenium, struck Western Asia, particularly the Mediterranean regions. Evidently less severe than the preceding ones, it was accompanied by revolts in Syria and in Palestine, resisted by Thutmose III and subdued by Amenhotep II.

A century later, around 1365, mean date, in the time of the reign of Amenhotep IV or Akhnaton, an earthquake of great violence ravaged several cities on the Syrio-palestinian coast as well as in the interior of the countries. In Asia Minor also the urban centers (Tarse and Boghazkeui and Troy) suffered damage in the same period. This fifth perturbation is very distinctly marked in the stratigraphic sections of most of the sites explored in these countries.

From about 1250 or 1225, the sixth and last great catastrophe fell upon the civilizations of the Bronze Age in Western Asia. Vast ethnic movements are launched again of which one, probably the most important, proceeds across the Syrio-Palestinian corridor and along the coast toward Egypt.

Professor Schaeffer then searches for causes and assigns the greatest weight to natural disaster, and not necessarily purely seismic disturbances [His given explanation-DD].

Our inquiry has demonstrated that these successive crises which opened and closed the principle period of the third and second millenia were not provoked by the action of man. On the contrary, compared to the amplitude of these general crises and to their profound effects, the exploits of conquerors and the machinations of statesman at that time appear modest indeed.

Thus in summary we can say that several times during the third and second millennia before the present era the ancient East was disturbed by stupendous catastrophes; he also found evidence that in the fourth, as well as in the first millennium, the ancient East went through great natural paroxysms, but their description Schaeffer reserved for future publications. In the published work covering the third and second millennia, Schaeffer discerned five or six great upheavals. The greatest of these took place at the very end of the Early Bronze, or the Old Kingdom in Egypt. At each of these occurrences, life was suddenly disturbed and the flow of history interrupted. Schaeffer also indicated that his acquaintance with European archaeology made him feel certain that Europe, too, was involved in those catastrophes; if so, they must have been more than continental—actually global in dimension.

Claude Schaeffer's working hypothesis was that massive superquakes which affected the entire mideastern area caused these catastrophes and they were actually a process by which the large plates of the Earth were readjusting themselves. I have felt for a long time that the Arabian plate itself was the culprit, but that one of the beneficial side effects was that the oil deposits deep within the Earth were also being brought up closer to the surface by the process. Velikovsky felt that the rearrangement of strata over such a large area could not be accounted for by conventional science, but he was forgetting that large areas of the Earth's surface were then still readjusting in reaction to the Ice Age which was at that time all that much closer in time.

Comparative Stratigraphy of Bronze Age Destruction Layers around the World: Archaeological Evidence and Methodological Problems
Abstract of talk by Benny J Peiser
Liverpool John Moores University, School of Human Sciences, Byrom Street, Liverpool L3 3AF, UK. e-mail: B.J.Peiser[at]
Presented at the SIS Conference: Natural Catastrophes during Bronze Age Civilisations (11th-13th July 1997)

During the last two decades, researchers have found evidence for abrupt climate change and civilisation collapse as well as sudden sea level changes, catastrophic inundations, widespread seismic activity and abrupt changes in glacial features at around 2200±200 BC. Climatological proxy data together with sudden changes in lacustrine, fluvial and aeolian deposits are clearly detectable at the Atlantic-Subboreal boundary in the archaeological, geological and dendrochronological records from around the world. A survey of ~500 excavation reports, research papers and scientific abstracts on late 3rd Millennium BC civilisation collapse and climate change was carried out in order to assess i) the nature, ii) the extent and iii) the chronology of sudden climatic and social downturns at this particular chronozone. This comparative study shows a significant pattern of abrupt glacial, eustatic, lacustrine, fluvial, pedological and geomorphic changes at around 4250±250 cal BP in many areas around the world. In addition, the majority of sites and cities (>1000) of the first urban civilisations in Asia, Africa and Europe appear to have collapsed at around the same time. Most sites in Greece (~260), Anatolia (~350), the Levant (~200), Mesopotamia (~30), the Indian subcontinent (~230), China (~20), Persia/Afghanistan (~50), Iberia (~70) which collapsed at around 2200±200 BC, exhibit unambiguous signs of natural calamities and/or rapid abandonment. The proxy data detected in the marine, terrestrial, biological and archaeological records point to sudden ecological, climatic and social upheavals which appears to coincide with simultaneous sea- and lake level changes, increased levels of seismic activity and widespread flood/tsunami disasters. The main problem in interconnecting this vast amount of data chronologically is the application of incoherent and imprecise dating methods in different areas of geological and climatological research. It is hypothesised that the globally detected evidence for sudden downturns at the Atlantic-Subboreal boundary is chronologically interconnected and that chronological diviations are mainly due to imprecise dating methods. Neither a seismic nor a climatic explanation for these significant natural and social disasters appear capable to account for the diversity of ecological alterations and great variety of damage features as well as the global extent of these events. Extra-terrestrial bodies, on the other hand, depending on their cometary constitution and their cohesive strength, can have catastrophic effects on the ecological system in a variety of patterns which match the glaciological, geological and archaeological features documented in this study.


BENNY J PEISER was born in Israel and educated in West Germany. He is a historian and anthropologist with particular research interest in neo-catastrophism and its implications for human and societal evolution. Benny is a senior lecturer at Liverpool John Moores University and has been researching, writing and lecturing about neo-catastrophism in the fields of ancient history, archaeology, cultural anthropology (and the origins of ancient combat sports) since 1987. He has presented and published numerous papers on the historical, intellectual and cultural implications of neo-catastrophism. He is a Fellow of the Royal Anthropological Society and is the editor of The Sports Historian, the journal of the British Society of Sports History.

Tree-ring Evidence For Environmental Disasters During The Bronze Age: Causes And Effects
Abstract of talk by Mike G L Baillie
Palaeoecology Centre, School of Geosciences, Queen's University, Belfast, Northern Ireland. e-mail: mbaillie[at]
Presented at the SIS Conference: Natural Catastrophes during Bronze Age Civilisations (11th-13th July 1997)

In 1988 the observation was made that narrowest-ring events in Irish sub-fossil oak chronologies appeared to line up with large acidities in the Greenland ice records from Camp Century and Dye3. Three of the events, at tree-ring ages 2345 BC, 1628 BC and 1159 BC turned out to be of particular interest as they contributed to debates on the Hekla 4 eruption in Iceland, dated to 2310±20 CalBC, Santorini in the Aegean, dated to circa 1670-1530 CalBC, and, possibly, Hekla 3, linked by Hammer and colleagues to their 1120±30 BC acid layer. It quickly became apparent, most notably through comments from Kevin Pang, that the two later events might relate in some way to the start and end of the Chinese Shang dynasty. It is equally of interest that the Egyptian New Kingdom traditionally spans the approximate range 1570 to 1080 BC. So the question arose whether these two volcano-related events could have caused widespread dynastic change. In order to proceed with this debate it is necessary to attempt to get a better handle on the nature of the effects. This paper will look at information from American and Fennoscandian tree-ring records and make some attempt to define the nature of the 1628 BC and 1159 BC events; are they truly abrupt, as would be expected with volcanoes, or are they imposed on pre-existing downturns. Existing exidence suggests that the latter may be the case. If this is correct, it seems appropriate to ask what might have caused the downturns? This question leads logically to the speculation that loading of the atmosphere from space might be a significant factor in the environmental downturns.


MIKE BAILLIE is a professor in the Palaeoecology Centre, School of Geosciences, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland. After reading physics at Queen's he moved into Archaeology and Palaeoecology taking a particular interest in chronology. His specialism is dendrochronology, and he has been involved in the construction of some of the first, long, oak chronologies. Using information from tree-ring records, he has attempted to identify abrupt environmental downturns in the past and to demonstrate their effects on past human populations. He publishes widely on these and related topics and is the author of A Slice Through Time: dendrochronology and precision dating (London: Routledge 1995).

Actually, Mike Baille seems to have hit it on the head that we are talking about a section of time between two catastrophic Volcanic eruptions which basically defined the climate in the era: the period begins with an eruption of Hekla (4) in Iceland and ends with the eruption of Thera (Santorini) in the Eastern Mediterranean. It is a pretty good bet that the Hekla volcano changed weather patterns that eventually affected the Egyptian and Akkadian Empires (see the illustration which opens this article, where the "Strong Low" is centered EXACTLY over Iceland),and the elaborate scenario which Velikovsky connects to the Egyptian Exodus has been related to the eruption of Thera ALONE, and not requiring the relocation of Venus out of its orbit at all (which is the central feature of Velikovsky's version)

However, Schaeffer's statement that there is a readjustment of the crust or a shifting of the plates is possibly still involved, in that you have this chain reaction of volcanoes and earthquakes together within the same time span. As the counterpoint to that statement and still in favor of cosmic-impact Catastrophism, The period is also bracketed between two strong possibilities for large impacts: the Buckle impact (possibly part of a much larger shower) presumably about 3000-2900 BC and connected to a Mesopotamian flood (Not to say necessarily NOAH'S Flood), and then some very good and consistent indicators still in favor of a Phaethon event about 1200 BC, a date which Schaeffer still quotes as well. this may or may not also be connected to the eruption of Hekla (3), but I rather think Hekla came later, perhaps as much as a century later, and some researchers just tended to associate the two events. And I personally believe Byzantine scholars had confused the traditions of the Exodus with stories about a comet in their records called "Comet Typhon" because as it turns out the reference to Typhon (Set) can refer to ANY comet. In this juncture it is good to repeat, Schaeffer's last Near-Eastern catastrophe is about 1225-1230 BC and corresponds to the Phaethon Bolide Event and it is the sixth: the better represented of two earlier breaks across all settlements and all cultures correspond to these two major volcanic eruptions and the climate deteriorations they brought on. Several statements have been made linking Thera's eruption to the end of the Subatlantic and the start of the Subboreal-but other experts prefer to use the date of Hekla 4 and the 4.2 Kiloyear event. (See Wikipedia entry reprinted below)

The Catastrophic End of the Early Bronze Age Synopsis of an ancient destruction
Collapses and ancient destructions of civilizations are historically blamed on conquest, stagnating bureaucracy and other causes essentially led by human hands. This article firmly blames the chaotic blends of nature Conquest and ineptitude were essentially side effects of the uncontrollable wrath of nature .A nature that was far more virulent than is seen in recent times.This example of the Early Bronze Age is but one in a series that decimated mankind.

The Catastrophic End of the Early Bronze Age - part 1 Testimonials from respected archaeologists Kathryn Kenyon, Ernest Wright, Claude Schaeffer, John Garstung, Paolo Matthiae ,Carl Blegen's, Michael Rice

The sudden and dramatic collapse of the Early Bronze Age civilizations, around 3200 B.C., has puzzled many an Archaeologist. Highly respected academics such as Kathryn Kenyon and John Garstung have wondered over these unexplained phenomena. The consensus of academic opinion notes not only was it sudden and dramatic but that it was widespread in it's geography, spreading from Europe, across Asia Minor to the Indus valley and beyond to China. There seems a high probability the Americas were involved.

Before we proceed I think it essential to review some of the academic opinions on the subject from the professional Archaeologist to the scientific investigator. Then I believe it constructive to find out what happened and what caused these events. In particular I would like to examine how much may have been caused by mankind's misadventures (e.g. War, environmental misuse, religious fervour and weak leadership) and what proportion can we allot to events largely out of our control (e.g. Disease, famine, flood, climate, tectonic disturbance and cosmic events)

Let us first move towards a consensus of what actually occurred .Our first witness is Kathryn Kenyon, excavator of both Jericho and Jerusalem "The final end of the early Bronze Age civilization came with catastrophic completeness... Jericho was probably completely destroyed... Every town in Palestine that has so far been investigated shows the same break... All traces of the early bronze Age civilization disappeared." Next let us hear Ernest Wright's testimony, "One of the most striking facts about the Early Bronze Age civilization is its destruction, one so violent that scarcely a vestige of it survived. We do not know when the event took place; we only know that there is not an early Bronze Age city excavated or explored in all Palestine which does not have a gap in its occupation between Early bronze Age 3 and the Middle Bronze Age. To date this gap, we know that it must approximately contemporary with a similar period in Egypt called the First Intermediate period between dynasties 6 and 11 (Ca. 2200 and 2100 B.C."Next we have Greece from Maria Gimbutas "The destruction of the early Helladic 2 town at Lerna in the Eastern Peloponnese is an example of the widespread and violent destruction that occurred Ca. 2300 B.C. in the Aegean and East Mediterranean. "According to Mellart "In the period after the collapse of the early bronze Age the number of settlements is reduced to a quarter of the number in the previous period". Michael Rice helps darken the picture, "In Eastern Arabia a sharp downturn in settlements and activity became apparent after Ca. 2000". In the Indus Valley we see Harappa and Mohen Jodharo overwhelmed, its inscriptions still unable to be interpreted. In all these areas a Hiatus exists between this close and the opening of the new era.

Thus we several distinguished authors noting a sudden end to this era. It was accompanied by widespread destruction and I will let Carl Schaeffer, Perhaps Frances most eminent modern Archaeologist, describe some of the accompanying phenomena. When first excavating Crete and Ras Shamira (Ugarit) he noticed six lines of demarcation separating the stratigraphy. However he was staggered that in other sites he examined in the Middle East and then Europe a similar separation occurred. More particularly when he examined Carl Blegen's excavation in Troy they found that there was a carpet of Ashes sixteen meters thick covering the Troy 2 level. This is the one that corresponds to Old kingdom in Egypt (around 2200B.C.) I for clarity quote him , "There is not the slightest doubt that the conflagration of Troy 2 corresponds to the Catastrophe that made an end to the Habitations of Alaca Huyuk, AlisairTarsus, Tepe Hissar and to the Catastrophe that burned ancient Ugarit in Syria, Byblos, the that flourished under the Old Kingdom in Egypt, the contemporaneous cities of Palestine, and that it was among the causes that terminated the old Kingdom of Egypt".

Schaeffers monumental work concludes that massive tectonic disturbances have visited the Middle East and Europe more than once, yet the one that caused such widespread destruction at the end of the early Bronze Age is of a kind that has not been seen since. Its destructive zone spreading from the very least Troy to Ugarit is 1000 Kilometers. Not even Krakatoa comes close to this. His final conclusion, which I will again quote, is enlightening since the accompanying phenomena start to make sense of the picture after the catastrophe. "In most countries the population suffered great reduction in numbers; in others settled living replaced nomadic existence" [Or nomadism replaced settled life-or whole populations were uprooted and then resettled someplace else-DD].

Schaeffer also noted that climatic change and massive race movements had accompanied this Hiatus between civilizations. What evidence do we have that such climatic change occurred? Recently their has been a Plethora of papers from scientists of many disciplines backing up the occurrence of a dramatic climate change around 2500 B.C - 2000 B.C. Changes in climate can be measured in several ways. Certainly tree ring growth gives good indication of drought or otherwise but perhaps more exciting is the total change in Flora that can occur. For instance Marchant reports a marked increase in the level of palms around 3800B.P.We have another more curious measure of rainfall associated with cave speleotherms . Isotopic content gives an indication that rainfall up to 4.5 kyr ago was much wetter followed by a 30-50% drop for the next 800 years. This produced a marked increase in certain drought resistant vegetation in the area (Eastern Mediterranean). Climatic change also affected the flow of the Nile, the principle vehicle for support amongst the Egyptians. Two cores taken downstream in the central Nile delta show distinctive erosion wash down layers from Ethiopia. This is characteristic sediment from areas that have been subject to extreme drying and erosion. There are two horizon layers. One at 4250 cal yr.B.P and one at 4050 cal yr. B.P. The Author notes similar drought evidence at the same time across Africa and Asia. A similar period is noted in the Great Plains, Mid Western U.S.A.

article by Peter Mungo Jupp

The Catastrophic End of the Early Bronze Age - part 2 [Concluding half of the article. I did not think the first half was relevant to this [period per se]

At this stage, before we indulge in the exploration of causes and reasons, it will be helpful to illustrate the Early Bronze Age downfall with a classic case. For this we will take the typical case of Ebla in Syria. The excavation of this Early Bronze Age city was undertaken by Dr Paolo Matthiae of the University of Rome. His probing of the mound that was revealed as Ebla took fifteen years. It was apparently destroyed in 2300B.C. More than 15,000 cuneiform tablets testify to its previous greatness. The Archaeologists had to slice through several layers to come to the early Bronze age level to find the tablets that not only mention the elusive Sodom and Gomorrah but reference swarms of small states within Ebla's sphere of influence. Pettinato says , "The enormous number of cities and villages presents an entirely new picture of the urbanization of Syria and Palestine in the 3rd millennium". Interestingly a relationship with Egypt has been established with the finding of pottery bearing the cartouche of Pepi 1st who reigned in Egypt from 2332BC to 2283 B.C. The location and artist impression of Ebla are contained in Plate 1 and 2 (attached) but as interesting is the plate showing the burnt and smashed clay tablets contained in the buried ruins of the city .So intense was the heat that this had preserved the clay tablets. Dr Matthiae notes two destructive conflagrations. One around 2350B.C. and the other around 2000B.C. The last in particular is covered with a "thick layer of ash found everywhere on this stratum. This signaled the collapse of the early Syrian cultures as well as this city. "The burning of a mud brick city so completely and uniformly is not an easy matter but classically such exclamations as roving Akkadians burning and plundering are bought forth to explain this widespread phenomena .In addition the thickness of the ash signals more fuel than mud brick buildings would provide. Are other vehicles such as eruptions involved? Certainly Schaeffer as distinct from Matthiae would suggest this. Nearby Nippur presents a picture of utter ruin only in this case it is swamped with sand whereas at its pinnacle it was a prosperous garden city on the Euphrates. Now it resides in the desert. What happened? ? Nearby Babylon suffered a similar fate.

Schaeffer , in private correspondence, notes the difficulty of convincing colleagues of the factuality of the Bronze Age collapse. "Perhaps it is good at present to establish only the reality of those crises and tremendous upheavals during the 2nd Millennia before our time and leave the study of causes to later research. For the historian and general public are not yet ready to accept the thought that the Earth is a much less safe place than that they were accustomed to believe. With the removal of the troublesome warlords in some of the modern nations, with Hitler, Mussolini and the Communists finally removed they think peace and eternal security will automatically be obtained everywhere -----but men are not easily convinced to face reality and accept the results of objective research. They prefer to live in their imaginative world. And perhaps all the better for them. These great crises will explain better than before, the historical development of the most ancient civilizations and its mechanism and they will definitely take out of the hands of man the command of the great historical happenings we thought we possessed".

I quote this opinion at some length since it underlies the difficulty new ideas in gaining acceptance where ingrained and accepted dogma prevails. As we noted before, the mechanism usually used to explain upheaval of social structure tends to built around war, religious upheaval, rights of succession and invasion, Context that is out of human control such as disease, famine, climatic change, tectonic disturbance etc. tend to get short shift. I suspect this is possibly because such dramatic results as the Bronze Age collapse have not been witnessed in our times and therefore are poorly understood .In addition we have not possessed the tools to even research ancient disasters. This said we would look to possible causes other than the traditional, which we have already touched on.

article by Peter Mungo Jupp

End of Middle Bronze Age, Thera Eruption and Probably Exodus Out of Egypt:

End of The Early Bronze Age, Old Kingdom Catastrophe, 4.2 Kiloyear Event.

4.2 kiloyear event From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (Redirected from 22nd century BC drought)

The 4.2 kiloyear BP aridification event was one of the most severe climatic events of the Holocene period in terms of impact on cultural upheaval.[1] Starting in ≈2200 BC, it probably lasted the entire 22nd century BC. It is very likely to have caused the collapse of the Old Kingdom in Egypt as well as the Akkadian Empire in Mesopotamia.[2] The drought may have also initiated southeastward habitat tracking within the Harappan cultural domain.[3]


A phase of intense aridity in ≈4.2 ka BP is well recorded across North Africa,[4] the Middle East,[5] the Red Sea,[6] the Arabian peninsula,[7] the Indian subcontinent,[3] and even midcontinental North America.[8] Glaciers throughout the mountain ranges of western Canada advanced at about this time.[9] Evidence has also been found in an Italian cave flowstone,[10] and in Andean glacier ice.[11]

The onset of the aridification in Mesopotamia near 4100 B.P also coincided with a cooling event in the North Atlantic, known as Bond event 3.[1][12][13] [This also coincides with the melting of the final remnants of Continental glaciers in two small sections East and West of Hudson's Bat, and possibly also in the Mountains of Norway. Evidence of increased iceberg activity in North Atlantic coincides with Bond Event 3. Final isostatic rebound FOLLOWS this date, after the ice has fully melted away, hence there are major crustal adjustments still going on AFTER 2000 BC-DD]


Ancient Egypt
In ca. 2150 BC the Old Kingdom was hit by a series of exceptionally low Nile floods, which was instrumental in the sudden collapse of centralized government in ancient Egypt.[14] Famines, social disorder, and fragmentation during a period of approximately 40 years were followed by a phase of rehabilitation and restoration of order in various provinces. Egypt was eventually reunified within a new paradigm of kingship. The process of recovery depended on capable provincial administrators, the deployment of the idea of justice, irrigation projects, and an administrative reform.

The aridification of Mesopotamia may have been related to the onset of cooler sea surface temperatures in the North Atlantic (Bond event 3), as analysis of the modern instrumental record shows that large (50%) interannual reductions in Mesopotamian water supply result when subpolar northwest Atlantic sea surface temperatures are anomalously cool.[15] The headwaters of the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers are fed by elevation-induced capture of winter Mediterranean rainfall.

The Akkadian Empire—which in 2300 B.C. was the second civilization to subsume independent societies into a single state (the first being ancient Egypt at around 3100 BC) —was brought low by a wide-ranging, centuries-long drought.[16] Archaeological evidence documents widespread abandonment of the agricultural plains of northern Mesopotamia and dramatic influxes of refugees into southern Mesopotamia around 2170 BC.[17] A 180-km-long wall, the "Repeller of the Amorites," was built across central Mesopotamia to stem nomadic incursions to the south. Around 2150 BC, the Guti, who originally inhabited the Zagros Mountains, defeated the demoralized Akkadian army, took Akkad, and destroyed it around 2115 BC. Widespread agricultural change in the Near East is visible at the end of the third millennium BC.[18]

Resettlement of the northern plains by smaller, sedentary populations occurred near 1900 BC, three centuries after the collapse.[17] [Evidence for integrated settlements of Iranian "Aryans"-as "Cimmerians" (Gutium)-beginning in Akkadian Empire earlier. -DD]

Arabian peninsulaIn the Persian Gulf region, there is a sudden change in settlement pattern, style of pottery and tombs at this time. The 22nd century BC drought marks the end of the Umm al-Nar period and the change to the Wadi Suq period.[7]

The drought may have caused the collapse of Neolithic Cultures around Central China during the late third millennium BC.[19] In the Yishu River Basin, the flourishing Longshan culture was hit by a cooling that made the paddies shortfall in output or even no seeds were gathered. The scarcity in natural resource led to substantial decrease in population and subsequent drop in archaeological sites.[20] About 4000 cal. yr BP Longshan culture was displaced by Yueshi culture which was relatively underdeveloped, simple and unsophisticated.

1.^ a b deMenocal, Peter B. (2001). "Cultural Responses to Climate Change During the Late Holocene". Science 292 (5517): 667–673. Bibcode 2001Sci...292..667D. doi:10.1126/science.1059827. PMID 11303088
2.^ Gibbons, Ann (1993). "How the Akkadian Empire Was Hung Out to Dry". Science 261 (5124): 985. Bibcode 1993Sci...261..985G. doi:10.1126/science.261.5124.985. PMID 17739611.
3.^ a b Staubwasser, M.; et al. (2003). "Climate change at the 4.2 ka BP termination of the Indus valley civilization and Holocene south Asian monsoon variability". Geophysical Research Letters 30 (8): 1425. Bibcode 2003GeoRL..30h...7S. doi:10.1029/2002GL016822.
4.^ Gasse, Françoise; Van Campo, Elise (1994). "Abrupt post-glacial climate events in West Asia and North Africa monsoon domains". Earth and Planetary Science Letters 126 (4): 435–456. Bibcode 1994E&PSL.126..435G. doi:10.1016/0012-821X(94)90123-6.
5.^ Bar-Matthews, Miryam; Ayalon, Avner; Kaufman, Aaron (1997). "Late Quaternary Paleoclimate in the Eastern Mediterranean Region from Stable Isotope Analysis of Speleothems at Soreq Cave, Israel". Quaternary Research 47 (2): 155–168. Bibcode 1997QuRes..47..155B. doi:10.1006/qres.1997.1883.
6.^ Arz, Helge W.; et al. (2006). "A pronounced dry event recorded around 4.2 ka in brine sediments from the northern Red Sea". Quaternary Research 66 (3): 432–441. Bibcode 2006QuRes..66..432A. doi:10.1016/j.yqres.2006.05.006.
7.^ a b Parker, Adrian G.; et al. (2006). "A record of Holocene climate change from lake geochemical analyses in southeastern Arabia". Quaternary Research 66 (3): 465–476. Bibcode 2006QuRes..66..465P. doi:10.1016/j.yqres.2006.07.001. [dead link]
8.^ Booth, Robert K.; et al. (2005). "A severe centennial-scale drought in midcontinental North America 4200 years ago and apparent global linkages". The Holocene 15 (3): 321–328. doi:10.1191/0959683605hl825ft.
9.^ Menounos, B.; et al. (2008). "Western Canadian glaciers advance in concert with climate change circa 4.2 ka". Geophysical Research Letters 35: L07501. Bibcode 2008GeoRL..3507501M. doi:10.1029/2008GL033172.
10.^ Drysdale, Russell; et al. (2005). "Late Holocene drought responsible for the collapse of Old World civilizations is recorded in an Italian cave flowstone". Geology 34 (2): 101–104. Bibcode 2006Geo....34..101D. doi:10.1130/G22103.1.
11.^ Davis, Mary E.; Thompson, Lonnie G. (2006). "An Andean ice-core record of a Middle Holocene mega-drought in North Africa and Asia". Annals of Glaciology 43: 34–41. Bibcode 2006AnGla..43...34D. doi:10.3189/172756406781812456. link]
12.^ Bond, G.; et al. (1997). "A Pervasive Millennial-Scale Cycle in North Atlantic Holocene and Glacial Climates". Science 278 (5341): 1257–1266. Bibcode 1997Sci...278.1257B. doi:10.1126/science.278.5341.1257.,%201997%20Millenial%20Scale%20Holocene%20Change.pdf.
13.^ Two examples of abrupt climate change. Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory. Archived from the original on 2007-08-23.
14.^ Stanley, Jean-Daniel; et al. (2003). "Nile flow failure at the end of the Old Kingdom, Egypt: Strontium isotopic and petrologic evidence". Geoarchaeology 18 (3): 395–402. doi:10.1002/gea.10065.
15.^ Cullen, Heidi M.; deMenocal, Peter B. (2000). "North Atlantic influence on Tigris-Euphrates streamflow". International Journal of Climatology 20 (8): 853–863. Bibcode 2000IJCli..20..853C. doi:10.1002/1097-0088(20000630)20:8<853::AID-JOC497>3.0.CO;2-M.
16.^ Kerr, Richard A. (1998). "Sea-Floor Dust Shows Drought Felled Akkadian Empire". Science 279 (5349): 325–326. Bibcode 1998Sci...279..325K. doi:10.1126/science.279.5349.325.
17.^ a b Weiss, H; et al. (1993). "The Genesis and Collapse of Third Millennium North Mesopotamian Civilization". Science 261 (5124): 995–1004. Bibcode 1993Sci...261..995W. doi:10.1126/science.261.5124.995. PMID 17739617.
18.^ Riehl, S. (2008). "Climate and agriculture in the ancient Near East: a synthesis of the archaeobotanical and stable carbon isotope evidence". Vegetation History and Archaeobotany 17 (1): 43–51. doi:10.1007/s00334-008-0156-8.
19.^ Wu, Wenxiang; Liu, Tungsheng (2004). "Possible role of the "Holocene Event 3" on the collapse of Neolithic Cultures around the Central Plain of China". Quaternary International 117 (1): 153–166. Bibcode 2004QuInt.117..153W. doi:10.1016/S1040-6182(03)00125-3
20.^ Gao, Huazhong; Zhu, Cheng; Xu, Weifeng (2007). "Environmental change and cultural response around 4200 cal. yr BP in the Yishu River Basin, Shandong". Journal of Geographical Sciences 17 (3): 285–292. doi:10.1007/s11442-007-0285-5
Further readingRistvet, L. (2003). "Agriculture, Settlement, and Abrupt Climate Change: The 4.2ka BP event in Northern Mesopotamia". In: American Geophysical Union, Fall Meeting 2003, abstract #PP22C-02.
External links
The Egyptian Old Kingdom, Sumer and Akkad
The End of the Old Kingdom

Ancient History Reference Maps.

4400 BC Predynastic Egypt and Uruk period begins in Mesopotamia
4th millennium BC
3900 BC 5.9 Kiloyear Event. Bond Event. Intense aridification triggered worldwide migration to river valleys, which might have caused changes in human behaviour, such as patriarchy, institutionalised warfare, social stratification, abuse of children, the development of the human ego, separation from the body (afterlife and reincarnation worship), the rise of anthropomorphic gods and the concept of linear historic time. A possible inspiration for the myth/legend of the fall of man. Abrupt end of the Ubaid period.

3600 BC -2800 BC Climatic deterioration in Western Europe and the Sahara.
In Europe Pollen zone VII Sub Boreal, oak and beech.
Glacial advances of the Piora oscillation, with lower economic prosperity in areas not able to irrigate in the Middle East. {Possible Correlation to "Flood" Meteorite impact in Western Indian Ocean with tsunamis on surrounding land areas, including Tigris-Euphrates-DD]

3500 BC to 3000 BC end of the Neolithic Subpluvial era, return of extremely hot and dry conditions in the Sahara Desert, hastened by the earlier 5.9 kiloyear event. [The Sahara does not recover to a more humid climate, as it had in former similar events-DD]
3100 BC- 2686 BC Early Dynastic Period of Egypt. The hallmarks of Ancient Egypt (art, architecture, religion) all formed during this period. This is widely assumed to be the time and place of the first writing system, the Egyptian hieroglyphs (date is disputed, some claim they were used as far back as 3200 BC, while others believe they weren't invented until the 28th century BC).
3200 BC- 3000 BC Protodynastic Period of Egypt
between 3500 BC and 2800 BC 30 km/19 mi-wide Burckle Crater is formed in Indian Ocean from a possible meteor or comet impact, possibly inspiring most [many local] flood myths.

3rd millennium BC
ca. 30th century BC/ c. 3000 BC: Stonehenge begins to be built. In its early version, it consists of a circular ditch and bank, with 56 wooden posts. (National Geographic, June 2008).
Sumerian Cuneiform script, considered among the oldest alphabets, is created

2900 BC Floods at Shuruppak from horizon to horizon, with sediments in Southern Iraq, stretching as far north as Kish, and as far south as Uruk, associated with the return of heavy rains in Nineveh and a potential damming of the Karun River to run into the Tigris River. This ends the Jemdet Nasr period and ushers in the Early Dynastic Period of Mesopotamia cultures of the area. Possible association of this event with the Biblical deluge.[With meteor?]
ca. 2880 BC Germination of Prometheus (a bristlecone pine of the species Pinus longaeva), formerly the world's oldest known non-clonal orgasnism
ca. 2832 BC Germination of Methuselah (a bristlecone pine of the species Pinus longaeva), currently the world's oldest known non-clonal orgasnism
2807 BC Suggested date for an asteroid or comet impact occurring between Africa and Antarctica, around the time of a solar eclipse on May 10, based on an analysis of flood stories. Possibly causing the Burckle crater and Fenambosy Chevron.[6][7]
2650 BC Sumerian epic of Gilgamesh describes vast tracts of cedar forests in what is now southern Iraq. Gilgamesh defies the gods and cuts down the forest, and in return the gods say they will curse Sumer with fire (or possibly drought). By 2100 BC, soil erosion and salt buildup have devastated agriculture. One Sumerian wrote that the "earth turned white." Civilization moved north to Babylonia and Assyria. Again, deforestation becomes a factor in the rise and subsequent fall of these civilizations.
Some of the first laws protecting the remaining forests decreed in Ur.

c. 2630 BC -1815 BC Construction of the Egyptian pyramids
2500 BC-2000BC Sahara becomes fully desiccated, and conditions become largely identical to those of today. Desiccation had been proceeding from 7500-6000 BCE, as a result of the shift in the West African tropical monsoon belt southwards from the Sahel, and intensified by the 5.9 kiloyear event.[3900 BC Dry spell] Subsequent rates of evaporation in the region led to a drying of the Sahara, as shown by the drop in water levels in Lake Chad. Tehenu of the Sahara attempt to enter into Egypt, and there is evidence of a Nile drought in the pyramid of Unas.
2300 BC Neolithic period ends in China
2200 BC Beginning of a severe centennial-scale drought in northern Africa, southwestern Asia and midcontinental North America, which very likely caused the collapse of the Old Kingdom in Egypt as well as the Akkadian Empire in Mesopotamia. This coincides with the transition from the Subboreal period to the subatlantic period.
21st century BC construction of the Ziggurat of Ur. Sumerian City-States Ending
2nd millennium BC
1900 BC The Atra-Hasis Epic describes Babylonian flood, with warnings of the consequences of human overpopulation.
1650 BC Minoan eruption destroys much of Santorini island, and decimates the Minoan civilization on Crete. ["This may have inspired the legend of Atlantis."acc. to Wikipedia]
1450 BC Minoan civilization in the Mediterranean declines, but scholars are divided on the cause [and the date]. Possibly a volcanic eruption was the source of the catastrophe (see Minoan eruption). On the other hand, gradual deforestation may have led to materials shortages in manufacturing and shipping. Loss of timber and subsequent deterioration of its land was probably a factor in the decline of Minoan power in the late Bronze Age, according to John Perlin in A Forest Journey.
1206 BC -1187 BC Evidence of major droughts in the Eastern Mediterranean. Hittite and Ugarit records show requests for grain were sent to Egypt, probably during the reign of Pharaoh Merenptah. Carpenter has suggested that droughts of equal severity to those of the 1950s in Greece, would have been sufficient to cause the Late Bronze Age collapse. The cause may have been a temporary diversion of winter storms north of the Pyrenees and Alps. Central Europe experienced generally wetter conditions, while those in the Eastern Mediterranean were substantially drier. There seems to have been a general abandonment of peasant subsistence agriculture in favour of nomadic pastoralism in Central Anatolia, Syria and northern Mesopotamia, Palestine, the Sinai and NW Arabia.
c. 2000 BC- c. 1000 BC The Sarasvati River dries up. Desertification of the Thar Region begins. [These eventa are sometimes associated with the Phaethon event including also "Aryan (Iranian) invasions" of India. There were no doubt settlements of Iranians in India at this time but their influence on local Vedic culture is probably exaggerated-DD]
Some theories of psychology and human evolution have proposed that humans had a bicameral mind (similar to schizophrenia) without full self-awareness or self-consciousness as we know them, similar to instincts in animals until this time.

The End of the Bronze Age: Changes in Warfare and the Catastrophe Ca. 1200 B.C. Robert Drews Princeton University Press 1993-10-03 280 pages English PDF

The Bronze Age came to a close early in the twelfth century b.c. with one of the worst calamities in history: over a period of several decades, destruction descended upon key cities throughout the Eastern Mediterranean, bringing to an end the Levantine, Hittite, Trojan, and Mycenaean kingdoms and plunging some lands into a dark age that would last more than four hundred years. In his attempt to account for this destruction, Robert Drews rejects the traditional explanations and proposes a military one instead.

[The People of the Sea Period undoubtedly DID cause a general military and political reordering throughout the Eastern Mediterranean. But this would demonstrably be following environmental stressors such as the increased storm patterns north of the Alps and Pyrennes as mentioned above-DD] Download the book:

Free register and download UseNet downloader, then you can free download from UseNet. You can download 150GB ebooks, audiobooks and anything for FREE.

"Peoples of the Sea" Horned Helmets and Concentric-Circle shields, Characteristic of the Atlantic Bronze Age from Tartessos to Denmark and including the Mediterranean Islands such as Sardinia. The horned helmets also occur in Bronze Age Italy. Below, a map of the travels of the Peoples of the Seas (Possibly "Pelasgians" but more likely also including the Tuatha deDanaan of Irish Mythology.)

Best Wishes, Dale D.

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